Indo-Aryan loanwords in Tamil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Tamil language has absorbed a large number of Indo-Aryan, especially Sanskrit,[1] loanwords ever since the early 1st millennium CE, when the Sangam period Chola kingdoms became influenced by early Brahmanism. Many of these loans are obscured by adaptions to Tamil phonology.[2].

This is an illustrative list of Tamil words of Indo-Aryan origin, classified based on type of borrowing. The words are transliterated according to IAST system. All words have been referenced with the Madras University Tamil Lexicon, which is used as the most authoritative and standard lexicon by mainstream scholars.[3][4] In the examples below, the second word is from Tamil, and its original Indo-Aryan source is placed to the left.


[edit] Change of final retroflex to dental

[edit] Loss of simple aspiration

[edit] Loss of initial s

[edit] Loss of initial complex consonant (retaining initial vowel)

[edit] Loss of initial complex consonant (introduction of vowel)

[edit] Loss of voicing

[edit] Loss of voiced aspiration

[edit] Tatsama borrowing

[edit] Change of final sibilant to semivowel

[edit] Change of medial sibilants to stops

[edit] Simplification of complex consonants

In the following words, the vowel i is added to the word-initial position before semivowels as per rules of Tamil grammar.

[edit] Split of complex syllables

[edit] Others

[edit] References

[edit] Notes

  1. ^
  2. ^ Michael Witzel [1]
  3. ^ Harold Schiffman in his official website says of the Madras University Tamil Lexicon "most comprehensive and authoritative."
  4. ^ Another source asserting the status of the Madras University Lexicon is this page where it is called "still the most comprehensive and authoritative Tamil dictionary."
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Madras University Tamil Lexicon
  6. ^ Burrow, Thomas (1947), "Dravidian Studies VI - The loss of initial c/s in South Dravidian", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (Cambridge University Press) 12 (1): 132–147,  at p. 133

[edit] Bibliography

[edit] External links

Retrieved from ""